A simple adaptation to a protein crystallography station to facilitate difference X-ray scattering studies (2019)
The X-ray crystallography station I911-2 at MAXLab II (Lund, Sweden) has been adapted to enable difference small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) data to be recorded. Modifications to the beamline included a customized flow cell, a motorized flow cell holder, a helium cone, a beam stop, a sample stage and a sample delivery system. This setup incorporated external devices such as infrared lasers, LEDs and reaction mixers to induce conformational changes in macromolecules. This platform was evaluated through proof-of-principle experiments capturing light-induced conformational changes in phytochromes. A difference WAXS signature of conformational changes in a plant aquaporin was also demonstrated using caged calcium.